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We're now moving on to the brewing process itself. Starting with mashing:

"In the mashing operations I like to get my goods down as stiff as possible, and have found it useful at times to use a little bisulphate of lime in the mash, running it into the mash in a small stream as it runs down, but given malt such as I have described, I do not think there is any need of it, though I have found little harm from it if not more than a pint to the quarter is used.
. . . .
I like an initial heat in the goods of 151º.2, and to raise it at the end of ten minutes to about 154º, keeping it there till taps are set, after which one proceeds in the ordinary way. Seeing that all my plant is, if possible, more than usually clean, I think a plentiful supply of really boiling water through the mains and in the vessels is the best way of making sure of sterilizing everything, and it is essential to bring the wort to the boil as rapidly as possible."
Journal of the Federated Institutes of Brewing, Volume 9, Issue 2, 1903, page 149.
That's a very precise temperature, 151.2º F, unless I'm misreading it. How does that tally with a practical example? Truman P2 Export seems a good beer to check. That had a strike heat of 164º F and a tap temperature of 151º F. The brewing record doesn't give the initial heat, but that would have been a few degrees higher than the tap heat - probably around 154º F. Which means the mashing temperatures were quite similar, just the other way around.

The author has some interesting points to make about boiling:

"In copper hops, I find the use of two or three pounds to the quarter of good Wurtemberg or Spalt hops to be a great assistance when they are to be got good and ripe. I think particular care should be taken that the filter bed in the hop back should not be disturbed or even sparged over, and if any liquor is required at the last to bring gravity right, I prefer to got it direct without putting it over the hops. I have taken particular note of the time of boiling, and have come to the opinion that, given a good boil, where evaporation is not a necessity, 1.5 hours for each copper is long enough. I have brewed many gyles of light bulk export for the colonies at a gravity of 1050° only boiling for this time, and found the ales were equally sound to those boiled for the longer period, and I consider of a rather better flavour, and I am of the opinion that a great deal of fuel might he saved in this direction. Perhaps some of the members present will give their opinion on this point? I think it is borne out by what Messrs. Briant and Meacham found some time ago, viz., that after a certain time soft resins become converted into hard resins in the copper, but I am getting away from the practical side."
Journal of the Federated Institutes of Brewing, Volume 9, Issue 2, 1903, page 149.
Pale Ales were the one type of beer where English hops were usually preferred over foreign ones. The examples I have to hand confirm this. Whitbread PA of 1903 and Barclay Perkins PA of 1900 both used 100% East Kent hops. The 1887 Truman P2 Export used a combination of Worcester and Kent hops. I'm pretty sure they're Worcester hops. It could possibly be Wurtemberg, as it's written W then a squiggle.

To put those two or three pounds per quarter into context, 1887 Truman P2 Export contained 20 lbs of hops per quarter. The Whitbread and Barclay Perkins domestic PA's 11-13 lbs per quarter. Making the author's recommended proportion of German hops 10-25% of the total. It's no coincidence that German hops were selected for a posh, hop-accented beer like Pale Ale. They were amongst the most highly-rated foreign hops in terms of flavour, along with Saaz.

I was surprised at the length of the boil for Truman P2 Export - 3 hours. I'm sure that I recall reading that Burton brewers didn't like to boil for too long because it darkened the colour. Of the three example beers I've been using, only Whitbread PA, with boil times of 1.33 and 1.5 hours for the two worts was close to the author's suggested time.

Boil times generally fell around WW I, for two reasons. Firstly, to save fuel. Coal shortages during the war encouraged brewers to be more economical. Secondly, with the fall in beer gravities, the need for long boils to evaporate off water and concentrate the wort mostly disappeared.

I almost forgot to mention one of the most significant statements in that passage: that the author had brewed Pale Ales for export to the colonies that were only 1050º. What do i usually say at this point? I remember - IPA was not a strong beer.

There's one thing that tallies with the author's next comment. The Barclay Perkins PA was brewed in June using 1898 and 1899 season hops, all of which had been kept in a cold store. How do I know that? Because C.S. is written after the hop entries.

"There is no doubt that the use of a good cold stored hop is a great advantage in this class of brewing if one is called upon to turn out a few extra brewings in the late spring. I would again like to have the opinion of members as to how they have found hops come out of cold store at the end of one, two, or more years? It appears to depend a great deal on the cold store. I have myself seen a great difference in similar hops brought out from different cold stores at the same age, and I consider it shows it to be very necessary for the brewer to know his cold store and, in fact, to have his own, if possible.

Too much cooler exposure I do not care for, but, at the same time, I think particular care should be taken that cooler sludge is not allowed to go down with the wort."
Journal of the Federated Institutes of Brewing, Volume 9, Issue 2, 1903, pages 149 - 150.
Now isn't that interesting? Not all cold stores were created equal. That makes my life even trickier, trying to work out exactly how much hops had deteriorated in storage. I'm sure that the large London breweries I mostly look at all had their own cold store.