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19-09-2011, 08:13
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Tables. Lots of lovely tables. (You're supposed to sing that in your head to the tune of "Feelings".) I warned you I'd too much info from the 1920's to fit in a single table. There's really more than enough for three. You'll be getting the final two today.


http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-uIxcDA6MLrI/TnB_KGfPzlI/AAAAAAAAIJQ/aStIVAFXY9c/s320/Bernards_Export_Beer_1955.JPG (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-uIxcDA6MLrI/TnB_KGfPzlI/AAAAAAAAIJQ/aStIVAFXY9c/s1600/Bernards_Export_Beer_1955.JPG)
The Scottish market was quite different from the English one. The biggest difference being the tied house system, which didn't really exist in Scotland. The majority of the pubs were free houses, though I expect many weren't as free as they might appear. On the face of it, there was more scope for direct competition between brewers on quality and price. Perhaps the lack of the guaranteed outlets tied houses represent was why smaller brewers struggled and the trade became dominated by a few large concerns.

Another difference was in the beers brewed. Not that Scottish beers were necessarily of themselves hugely different from their English cousins. It's more the amount of each type brewed. Scotland, like Ireland, seems to have been out of phase with England in terms of style evolution. But the other way around, i.e. Scotland was ahead of the game.

What struck me about both the Gravity Book entries and brewing records is the preponderance of Pale Ales. and the paucity of Mild Ales.In the 1920's Mild accounted for more than 50% of beer sales in the UK. Not in Scotland, though. These are the number of analyses per style from the Thomas Usher Gravity Book:




Amber Ale
7


Barley Wine
4


Brown Ale
12


IPA
16


Lager
4


Mild
15


Pale Ale
434


Pils
2


Scotch Ale
15


Stout
56


Strong Ale
52



As you can see, around two thirds were for Pale Ale. The Whitbread Gravity Book has proportionally far more Milds and Stouts. Note also the poor showing of Scotch Ale in Scotland. Even worse when you consider many of the samples were brewed for the Belgian market.

Mild and Stout seem to have lost popularity more quickly in Scotland. In England both were major styles until well after WW I. Porter seems to have become extinct in Scotland in the 19th century. Of course, the same was to happen in England, but not until WW II. Scotland seems to have been 30 years ahead of England in terms of style evolution. It should also be noted that Lager took off much earlier in Scotland.

I'd love to be able to explain these differences. But I can't. I welcome your suggestions.

Back to the beers themselves. There are four main types of Pale Ale: 60/- at 1039º, 70/- at 1046º, 80/- at 1053 º and 90/- which, perversely, was a similar gravity to 60/-. I know nowadays 90/- is used to denote a Strong Ale. In the 1920's, it had quite a different meaning. Basically a carbonated, light bottled Pale Ale. Light Ale, I suppose, to use the English term.

You can also see how Export was becoming synonymous with 80/- Pale Ale. Though there isn't a single mention of Heavy.

The averages - OG 1040º, FG 1009º, 4% ABV, 77% attenuation - are very similar for all of the 1920's. That's a shade under average gravity for the UK, which was 1043º.

Time for the tables themselves. One last thing. The Thomas Usher Gravity Book includes comments on the flavour of some of the entries. Mostly not very complimentary, though there were a couple of beers praised. Considering the supposed lack of hops in Scottish beers, it's significant how often the level of bitterness is mentioned.

Table 1:




Scottish Pale Ale 1925 - 1929


Year
Brewer
Beer
Price
size
package
FG
OG
colour
ABV
App. Atten-uation


1925
Aitken
??

pint
bottled
1010
1039

3.76
74.36%


1925
Ballingall
Pale Ale carbonated

pint
bottled
1011.5
1046
40
4.48
75.00%


1925
Bernard
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1010
1038
39
3.63
73.68%


1925
Deucher, J.
Montrose Ale

pint
bottled
1010
1041

4.02
75.61%


1925
McEwan
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1007
1034
38
3.51
79.41%


1925
Murray
Strong Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1015
1034.5
25
2.51
56.52%


1925
Murray
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1010.5
1039.5
25
3.76
73.42%


1925
Murray
Strong PA

pint
bottled
1014
1060

5.99
76.67%


1925
Murray
Strong PA
6d
half pint
bottled
1015
1060

5.86
75.00%


1925
Usher
PA 60/-

pint
bottled
1006
1038

4.17
84.21%


1925
Younger, Wm
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1007.5
1039
28
4.10
80.77%


1926
Aitken
Sparkling Ale

pint
bottled
1005
1034
40
3.77
85.29%


1926
Bernard
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009
1040
40
4.03
77.50%


1926
Deucher, J.
Lochside Beer

pint
bottled
1008.5
1040.5

4.16
79.01%


1926
Dryborough
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1009
1032
50
2.98
71.88%


1926
Dryborough
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007.5
1035.5

3.64
78.87%


1926
Dryborough
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1038

3.90
78.95%


1926
Jeffrey & Co
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1032
35
3.38
81.25%


1926
McEwan
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1007
1035
40
3.64
80.00%


1926
McEwan
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1006
1034
40
3.64
82.35%


1926
Murray
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1010
1035
30
3.24
71.43%


1926
Murray
Pale Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1008
1034
20
3.37
76.47%


1926
Tennent
90/-

pint
bottled
1005
1035
40
3.91
85.71%


1926
Younger, Wm
Sparkling Ale

pint
bottled
1007
1038
28
4.03
81.58%


1926
Younger, Wm
Sparkling Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1038
30
4.17
84.21%


1927
Aitchison
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006.3
1035.3

3.77
82.27%


1927
Aitchison
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1035

3.77
82.86%


1927
Bernard
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007
1040

4.29
82.50%


1927
Campbell, Hope & King
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1038.3

4.20
84.31%


1927
Dryborough
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006.3
1038.8

4.23
83.85%


1927
Jeffrey & Co
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1004.8
1037.8

4.30
87.42%


1927
McEwan
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008.3
1040.3

4.16
79.50%


1927
McKay
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006.3
1039.3

4.30
84.08%


1927
Murray
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007
1039

4.16
82.05%


1927
Steel Coulson
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1010
1041

4.02
75.61%


1927
Steel Coulson
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1039

4.30
84.62%


1927
Usher
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007.3
1040.3

4.29
81.99%


1927
Younger, Robert
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1010
1038.5

3.70
74.03%


1927
Younger, Wm
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1006.5
1038.5

4.16
83.12%


1927
Younger, Wm
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008.5
1040

4.09
78.75%


1928
Aitchison
60/- Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007
1039.5

4.23
82.28%


1928
Calder Alloa
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1037

3.77
78.38%


1928
Deucher, J.
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1007
1038.5

4.10
81.82%


1928
Deucher, J.
70/- Beer

pint
bottled
1013
1056

5.60
76.79%


1928
Deucher, J.
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1040

4.16
80.00%


1928
Lorimer & Clark
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1038.3

3.93
79.08%


1928
Lorimer & Clark
80/- Beer

pint
bottled
1010
1052.5

5.54
80.95%


1928
Maclay
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1012
1038.8

3.46
69.03%


1928
Maclay
70/- Beer

pint
bottled
1014.5
1047

4.21
69.15%


1928
McEwan
70/- Ale

pint
bottled
1012.5
1047

4.48
73.40%


1928
Steel Coulson
80/- Beer

pint
bottled
1010
1055

5.87
81.82%


1928
Usher
PA 60/-



1014
1041

3.57
65.85%


1928
Usher
PA



1013
1035

2.91
62.86%


1928
Usher
PA 60/-



1014
1041

3.57
65.85%


1928
Usher
PA 60/-



1013
1041

3.70
68.29%


1928
Usher
PA 80/-



1015
1055

5.29
72.73%


1928
Usher
PA 70/-



1014.5
1048

4.43
69.79%


1928
Usher
PA 60/-



1014
1041

3.57
65.85%


1928
Usher
PA 60/-



1013.5
1041

3.64
67.07%



Average




1009.2
1040.4

4.06
77.24%


Sources:


Thomas Usher Gravity Book document TU/6/11 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive


Younger, Wm. & Co Gravity Book document WY/6/1/1/19 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive


Thomas Usher brewing record document TU/6/6 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive






http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Tx1sYNXNgJs/TnB9b-7XJNI/AAAAAAAAIJI/vjQovmbWhK8/s320/Scottish_Pale_Ale_1925_1929_1.JPG (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-Tx1sYNXNgJs/TnB9b-7XJNI/AAAAAAAAIJI/vjQovmbWhK8/s1600/Scottish_Pale_Ale_1925_1929_1.JPG)




http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_tA5mZ1JNNU/TnB9iS6IdgI/AAAAAAAAIJM/RaRwPJ9jN-4/s320/Scottish_Pale_Ale_1925_1929_2.JPG (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-_tA5mZ1JNNU/TnB9iS6IdgI/AAAAAAAAIJM/RaRwPJ9jN-4/s1600/Scottish_Pale_Ale_1925_1929_2.JPG)









Scottish Pale Ale 1925 - 1929


Year
Brewer
Beer
Price
size
package
FG
OG
colour
ABV
App. Atten-uation
Flavour


1928
Usher
Pale Ale

pint
draught
1014
1040.8

3.46
65.64%



1928
Usher
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1012
1040.5

3.69
70.37%



1928
Usher
70/- Ale

pint
draught
1014.5
1047

4.21
69.15%



1928
Usher
90/- Sparkling Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009
1037
no. 10 - 11 (Newcastle dark)
3.63
75.68%



1928
Usher
90/- Sparkling Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009
1038
no. 10 - 11
3.76
76.32%



1928
Younger, Geo
No. 1 Alloa Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1043.5
no. 9 (standard colour)
4.62
81.61%



1928
Younger, Wm
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1010.3
1040.3

3.89
74.53%



1929
??
Sparkling Ale

pint
bottled
1006
1032

3.38
81.25%



1929
Aitchison
60/- Beer

pint
bottled
1009.8
1038.8

3.76
74.84%



1929
Aitchison
60/- Beer

pint
bottled
1009.8
1040.3
Pale no. 1 2 glass paler than standard
3.96
75.78%
thin sweetish flavour with after bitter. Possibly indicates addition of priming.


1929
Aitchison
70/- Beer

pint
bottled
1008
1045
Pale no. 2 half glass paler than our Newcastle 70/-
4.82
82.22%
Does not drink its gravity.


1929
Aitchison
60/- (pale)

pint
bottled
1008
1045.5
Between 1 - 2. Same as our standard
4.89
82.42%
Thin sweetish flavour, but after bitter not so prounced as sample from ???


1929
Ballingall
90/-

pint
bottled
1008
1040.5
No. 9 Same as our standard.
4.23
80.25%
Bad nose and unpleasant flavour.


1929
Ballingall
Imperial Hopped

pint
bottled
1009
1036
No. 10 Same as our medium standard.
3.50
75.00%



1929
Bernard
Crown Brand Export (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1005.3
1049
No. 00 XX Pale
5.72
89.29%



1929
Bernard
90/- (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1008.5
1038.5
No. 10 Same as our medium standard.
3.90
77.92%



1929
Blair
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1038

3.90
78.95%



1929
Deuchar, R
60/-

pint
bottled
1009.5
1038.5
No. 4 1.5 glass paler than our standard.
3.76
75.32%
Full, but with rather harsh bitter flavour.


1929
Deuchar, R
60/-

pint
bottled
1009.5
1038.5
No.6 1 glass paler than our standard.
3.76
75.32%
Sweet, but cleansing harsh bitter.


1929
Deucher, J.
60/-

pint
bottled
1005
1039.5
Between 8 - 9. Almost same as our standard
4.50
87.34%
Fairly full, but bitter and not very clean palate.


1929
Jeffrey & Co
Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1007.5
1034
Between 7 - 8.
3.44
77.94%



1929
Maclay
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1012.5
1039

3.43
67.95%



1929
McEwan
Pale Ale
8d
pint
bottled
1008.2
1041

4.27
80.00%



1929
McEwan
Export PA
6d
pint
bottled
1011.4
1056

5.82
79.64%



1929
McEwan
Blue Label Ale
4d
half pint
bottled
1008.2
1038

3.87
78.42%



1929
McEwan
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009
1039

3.90
76.92%



1929
McEwan
80/- Beer

pint
bottled
1011
1053

5.47
79.25%



1929
McEwan
60/- Beer (Pale)

pint
bottled
1007.5
1040
0.75 glass lower than our pale. 1.5 lower than standard.
4.23
81.25%



1929
McEwan
70/-

pint
bottled
1009
1045.5
No. 6 Same as our standard for Newcastle.
4.75
80.22%



1929
McEwan
60/-

pint
bottled
1006
1039.5
No.4 1.5 glass paler than our standard.
4.36
84.81%
Mildest so far received from Newcastle. Cleaner palate than 70/-.


1929
McEwan
Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1012
1041
Between 7 - 8. Same as our Newcastle Pale.
3.76
70.73%
Sweet. Heavily primed & lightly hopped. Characterless.


1929
McEwan
Export Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1013
1053.5
Between 1 - 2. Extra pale.
5.27
75.70%
Extremely good - highly hopped.


1929
McEwan
90/- (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1008
1039
No. 10 Same as our medium darkened.
4.03
79.49%
Aromatic and rather bitter.


1929
McEwan
Blue Laberl Fourpenny Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1005.5
1038
No. 3 Same as our ordinary pale.
4.23
85.53%
Going off.


1929
McEwan
Bleu Label (fourpenny / carbonated)

pint
bottled
1008
1039.5
No. 9 Same as our standard.
4.09
79.75%



1929
McEwan
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009.8
1043
Between 9 - 10.
4.32
77.33%



1929
McLauchlin
60/-

pint
bottled
1005
1033
Between 7 - 8. Same as our Newcastle Pale.
3.64
84.85%
a harsh bitter


1929
McLennan & Urquhart
Dalkeith Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1015
1041
No. 11 Same as our dark.
3.36
63.41%



1929
Murray
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1009
1038.5

3.83
76.62%



1929
Murray
90/-

pint
bottled
1007.3
1040
Between 9 - 10. Half glass darker than our standard.
4.26
81.88%
Soft, but leaving harsh flavour on palate.


1929
Murray
4d Pale Ale (carbonated)
4d
half pint
bottled
1011
1035.5
No. 7 One glass paler than our standard.
3.17
69.01%



1929
Murray
4d Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1011
1037
No 7 One glass darker than our standard.
3.37
70.27%



1929
Murray
Export Strong Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1013.5
1056
Between 5 - 6.
5.53
75.89%



1929
Tennent
90/- Glasgow Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008
1039.3
No. 9 Same as our standard.
4.06
79.62%



1929
Tennent
90/- Glasgow Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1008.5
1039.5
Between 9 - 10.
4.03
78.48%



1929
Usher
Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1012
1040

3.63
70.00%



1929
Usher
90/- Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1011.3
1040.5
Between 11 - 12
3.79
72.22%



1929
Usher
90/- Sparkling Pale Ale (natural condition)

pint
bottled
1009
1040.5

4.09
77.78%



1929
Usher
90/- Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1011
1040.5
Between 11 - 12
3.82
72.84%



1929
Usher
120/- Strong Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1013.3
1051.5
Between 14 - 15.
4.97
74.27%



1929
Williamson, Broxburn
Pale Ale

pint
bottled
1012
1048

4.68
75.00%



1929
Wright (Perth)
Dinner Ale (Extra Hopped)

pint
bottled
1005.8
1027
No. 10 Same as our medium standard.
2.76
78.70%



1929
Younger, Geo
90/- PA

pint
bottled
1009
1039

3.90
76.92%



1929
Younger, Geo
PA

pint
bottled
1002
1035

4.31
94.29%



1929
Younger, Geo
PA 60/-

pint
bottled
1008
1037

3.77
78.38%



1929
Younger, Geo
Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1004
1033.3
Between 7 - 8. Same as our Newcastle Pale.
3.80
87.85%
Thin & characterless


1929
Younger, Geo
Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1007
1034
Between 7 - 8. Same as our Newcastle Pale.
3.51
79.41%



1929
Younger, Geo
Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1008
1035.5
Between 8 - 9. Shade paler than our standard
3.57
77.46%



1929
Younger, Geo
Heavy Export Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1013
1049
Between 11 – 12
4.67
73.47%



1929
Younger, Geo
Sparkling Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1007.8
1038
Between 7 - 8.
3.93
79.61%



1929
Younger, Geo
No. 1 Alloa Pale Ale (carbonated)

pint
bottled
1011
1044.8
No. 9.
4.38
75.42%



1929
Younger, Wm
90/-

pint
bottled
1008
1040.3
Betwwn 9 - 10 Half glass lighter than our standard. Half glass lighter than ours for Dundee.
4.19
80.12%
Soft, but slightly harsh.


1929
Younger, Wm
90/-

pint
bottled
1008
1039.5
Betwwn 9 - 10 Half glass lighter than our standard. Half glass lighter than ours for Dundee.
4.09
79.75%
Soft, but slightly harsh.



Average




1009.1
1040.6

4.09
77.58%



Sources:


Thomas Usher Gravity Book document TU/6/11 held at the Scottish Brewing Archive


Whitbread Gravity Book document LMA/4453/D/02/001 held at the London Metropolitan Archives


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