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10-12-2016, 09:03
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It’s fascinating to see how Scottish Stout gradually diverged from English versions. In particular, from London Stouts which were, after all, the originals.

By the eve of WW I, English and Scottish had split wide apart. As the 20th century progressed, that gap became even wider.



Thomas Usher vs London Porter and Stout 1909 - 1912


Year
Brewer
Beer
Style
OG
FG
ABV
App. Atten-uation
lbs hops/ qtr
hops lb/brl


1912
Whitbread
P
Porter
1054.3
1013.0
5.47
76.08%
4.92
1.16


1912
Whitbread
LS
Stout
1055.3
1013.0
5.60
76.50%
4.92
1.18


1912
Whitbread
Exp S
Stout
1068.4
1020.0
6.41
70.77%
13.05
4.24


1912
Whitbread
SS
Stout
1079.9
1030.0
6.60
62.43%
8.48
3.12


1912
Whitbread
SSS
Stout
1095.8
1039.0
7.51
59.28%
8.48
3.74


1910
Barclay Perkins
OMS
Stout
1053.2
1016.5
4.86
68.98%
7.50
1.82


1910
Barclay Perkins
BS Ex
Stout
1076.0
1022.5
7.08
70.39%
12.00
4.12


1910
Barclay Perkins
EIP Ex
Porter
1063.5
1020.0
5.75
68.50%
12.00
3.40


1911
Barclay Perkins
RDP
Porter
1068.2
1023.5
5.91
65.54%
8.00
2.52


1909
Truman
Imperial Stout
Stout
1094.2



5.6
2.72


1909
Truman
SS?
Stout
1072.0



5.6
2.08


1909
Truman
Runner L & C
Porter
1054.3



6.1
1.38


1909
Truman
Country Runner
Porter
1058.2



7.5
2.01


1909
Truman
Bottling
Porter
1052.6



7.5
1.82


1909
Truman
Export Stout
Stout
1069.3



9.9
3.35


1909
Truman
Runner
Porter
1058.2



8.2
2.31


1909
Truman
Keeping Stout
Stout
1069.3



9.5
3.29


1912
Thomas Usher
48/-
Stout
1046
1023
3.04
50.00%
6.50
1.36


1912
Thomas Usher
54/-
Stout
1054
1026
3.70
51.85%
6.50
1.60


1912
Thomas Usher
Stt
Stout
1070
1029
5.42
58.57%
6.50
2.07


Sources:


Barclay Perkins brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number ACC/2305/1/602


Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/09/106


Truman brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number B/THB/C/112


Thomas Usher brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive, document number TU/6/1/5.





https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-HeqX5HpCulc/WEgB0iRrpCI/AAAAAAAAbCo/VOkf-BrPf20-RO7ZqzxR8vyxxP5rVJp3wCLcB/s320/Thomas_Usher_Sweet_Stout_1968.jpg (https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-HeqX5HpCulc/WEgB0iRrpCI/AAAAAAAAbCo/VOkf-BrPf20-RO7ZqzxR8vyxxP5rVJp3wCLcB/s1600/Thomas_Usher_Sweet_Stout_1968.jpg)
What were those differences? Scottish Stouts generally had lower gravities and a poorer degree of attenuation. Not even London Porter had a gravity under 1050º. 1046º is very low for a pre-WW I Stout. Usher’s strongest Stout, Stt, is only about the same strength as the weakest London Stouts.

Note that the degree of attenuation increases with the OG. Leaving the FGs of the three Stouts very similar. This is a trick I’ve seen before in Scottish beers. Maclay did something similar with their three Pale Ales. I guess the point is to have a similar level of body and sweetness in all three.

Interestingly, one area where there is no real difference is the level of hopping. Contrary to what some would tell you about Scottish beers. Usher’s Stouts have similar levels of hopping as London beers of a similar gravity. The only exceptions being the London Export Stouts which naturally would have been more heavily hopped.

The biggest change in the grist compared to their 19th-century Stouts is the absence of black malt, which has been replaced by chocolate malt. Before WW I, London brewers stuck with black malt, but Whitbread also swapped over to chocolate malt in 1922.

The original recipe contains six types of sugar: 4 cwt. CDA, 1 cwt. Maltosan, 2 cwt. oatine, 3 cwt. DL, 10 cwt Penang. I assume oatine contained oats in some form, so feel free to throw in some flaked oats if you fancy. CDA is some sort of proprietary dark sugar. No idea what Maltosan and DL are, but Penang will be some type of cane sugar. I’ve simplified it to just No. 3 invert.

The very long boil is probably because 48/- was parti-gyled with the stronger Stout. Or maybe they wanted to darken the wort. I won’t get angry if you stick to a more conventional, shorter boil.




1912 Thomas Usher 48/- Stout


pale malt
6.75 lb
69.23%


brown malt
0.50 lb
5.13%


choc. Malt
0.50 lb
5.13%


crystal malt 60L
0.50 lb
5.13%


No. 3 invert
1.50 lb
15.38%


Fuggles 90 min
1.00 oz



Fuggles 60 min
1.00 oz



Fuggles 30 min
1.00 oz



OG
1046



FG
1023



ABV
3.04



Apparent attenuation
50.00%



IBU
37



SRM
24



Mash at
148º F



Sparge at
170º F



Boil time
240 minutes



pitching temp
60º F



Yeast
WLP028 Edinburgh Ale






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