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25-10-2014, 08:33
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We're still on grains. But I promise we'll get onto a more excting topic soon. Like hops. You young people love you your hops. Not like us boring old twats.

This is great. The article discusses the increased use of unmalted grains during the war. Why is that brilliant? Because I have some great numbers on brewing materials. Ones I've been saving until now.


"The use of flaked barley became general quite early in the war as a malt adjunct, and as no restriction was placed on its use it helped to increase output. It was found to be readily converted in the mash tun and, as time has proved, when not used in excess, has had no directly deleterious effect on the beers, although it was not used at first without some misgivings on the part of the brewer. It increases the bulk of the mash, however, and when output was of so much moment some brewers replaced it by finely ground barley without any noticeable difference (cf. J. L. Baker, ibid., 1942, 109). Although a small proportion of the nitrogen constituents of flaked barley are rendered soluble in the mash tun it contributes but little yeast feeding material to the wort and therefore acts as a diluent to that contributed by the malt. This was a drawback in those breweries whose average gravity was low, although it certainly helped to correct and reduce the difficulties consequent on the use of poor quality malts."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 52, Issue 3, May-June, 1946, page 121.
There were two reasons why the government was keen on using unmalted barley: it saved on both fuel and labour. You can see how the usage of adjucts increased during the war years:



Brewing materials (cwt)


year
malt
unmalted corn
rice, maize, etc
sugar
total malt & adjuncts


1938
9,378,888
78.31%
14,194
0.12%
688,086
5.75%
1,894,773
15.82%
11,975,941


1939
9,884,803
78.35%
9,910
0.08%
734,771
5.82%
1,986,478
15.75%
12,615,962


1940
9,857,838
83.81%
7,912
0.07%
363,588
3.09%
1,532,776
13.03%
11,762,114


1941
10,988,413
86.90%
11,897
0.09%
246,757
1.95%
1,397,642
11.05%
12,644,709


1942
10,918,102
85.54%
52,646
0.41%
382,207
2.99%
1,411,422
11.06%
12,764,377


1943
10,287,322
79.34%
40,592
0.31%
1,238,183
9.55%
1,400,573
10.80%
12,966,670


1944
10,621,168
78.88%
143,183
1.06%
1,241,121
9.22%
1,458,647
10.83%
13,464,119


1945
10,435,212
75.63%
245,751
1.78%
1,332,032
9.65%
1,784,064
12.93%
13,797,059


1946
9,976,998
76.53%
137,750
1.06%
1,132,748
8.69%
1,790,021
13.73%
13,037,517


1947
9,454,253
80.37%
92,974
0.79%
614,335
5.22%
1,601,186
13.61%
11,762,748


Source:


Brewers' Almanack 1955, page 62.




By the 1944 and 1945, the proportion of unmalted adjunts was around 10% of the total - about double what it had been in 1938. While sugar fell from around 15% of the total pre-war to 10%. While the amount of malt itself increased in the middle war years. By the look of iyt to compensate for a reduction in the amount of sugar available.

But brewers were later forced to use an even less popular ingredient: flaked oats


"Early in 1943, when the shipping position became difficult owing to the intensified U boat activity, barley was required for use in bread, and brewers were asked to replace flaked barley by flaked oats, but there were some misgivings about its use on account of its high fat content. A series of investigations was carried out to prove its suitability in order to satisfy brewers that they could be used with safety; 10 per cent, was considered a safe maximum. Owing to its huskiness flaked oats had the advantage of improving drainage in the mash tun, although, owing to its bulkiness, those brewers working with a full mash tun found it to be a disadvantage. A bad oat harvest in the following year, however, caused its use in brewing to be discontinued. The Ministry of Food then suggested that flaked oats might be replaced by dried potatoes, the drying plants in beet sugar factories used for drying the exhausted beet slices being utilized for this purpose. Investigations carried out with potatoes dried in this manner, however, proved them to be quite unsuitable for use in brewing owing to the unpleasant flavour imparted to the beer, and as the anticipated surplus of potatoes did not materialize, flaked barley was again used to replace flaked oats, and has continued up to the present time."
Journal of the Institute of Brewing Volume 52, Issue 3, May-June, 1946, page 121.
Potatoes have been used in brewing. I've published a 19th-century recipe for potato Broyhan. So it is possible. I wonder if the Broyhan also suffered from a nasty flavour?

It's easiest to see the move to unmalted grains at Whitbread, because before the war they used no adjuncts, only malt and sugar. The first sighting of flaked barley is on 10th October 1941 in a brew of XX Mild Ale*. Significantly, IPA and PA brewed a few days later contained none. On 28th May 1942, in addition to flaked barley, barley meal and flaked rye is in the grists**. By now the adjuncts are in all Whitbread's beers.

In April 1943 flaked oats replaces all the other adjuncts***. The in February 1944 Whitbread switched back to using flaked barley****. You can see that Whitbread had little control over their grists but had adjuct them according to government policy and which raw materials were available.

Whitbread also occasionally used wheat malt. These tables should give a good impreession of the decisions Whitbread had forced on them during the war years:



Whitbread Mild Ale 1938 - 1947


Date
Year
Beer
OG
FG
ABV
App. Atten-uation
lbs hops/ qtr
hops lb/brl
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
Pitch temp


25th Feb
1938
X
1035.3
1010.0
3.35
71.67%
7.44
1.11
1.25
1.25
65º


26th Sep
1939
X
1033.9
1010.5
3.10
69.03%
8.27
1.11
1.25
1
65º


25th Apr
1940
X
1033.5
1008.5
3.31
74.63%
8.12
1.12
1.25
1
65º


20th Nov
1940
XX
1031.1
1010.0
2.79
67.85%
8.42
1.07
1.17
0.75
66º


10th Oct
1941
XX
1031.2
1009.0
2.94
71.15%
6.38
0.76
1.25
1.25
65º


30th Jan
1942
XX
1029.1
1007.5
2.86
74.23%
5.84
0.75
1
1
65º


30th May
1942
XX
1028.4
1007.0
2.83
75.35%
6.19
0.75
1
1
65º


5th Apr
1943
XX
1027.8
1008.0
2.62
71.22%
6.07
0.76
1
1.25
65º


22nd Feb
1944
XX
1028.5
1009.0
2.58
68.42%
5.79
0.69
1
0.75
65º


4th Apr
1945
XX
1028.2
1009.0
2.54
68.09%
5.63
0.70
1
0.75
65º


12th Sep
1946
XX
1027.3
1008.0
2.55
70.70%
6.02
0.71
1
1
65º


3rd Jan
1947
XX
1027.5
1005.5
2.91
80.00%
6.02
0.68
1
0.75
65º


Sources:


Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers LMA/4453/D/01/105, LMA/4453/D/01/107, LMA/4453/D/01/108, LMA/4453/D/01/109, LMA/4453/D/01/110, LMA/4453/D/01/111, LMA/4453/D/01/112, LMA/4453/D/01/114.






Whitbread Mild Ale grists 1938 - 1947


Date
Year
Beer
OG
pale malt
crystal malt
MA malt
PA malt
no. 3 sugar
other sugar
wheat malt
flaked barley
barley meal
flaked rye
flaked oat


25th Feb
1938
X
1035.3
72.97%
12.46%


13.05%
1.52%







26th Sep
1939
X
1033.9
75.73%
13.59%


9.06%
1.62%







25th Apr
1940
X
1033.5
24.30%
13.08%
54.21%

4.98%
1.56%
1.87%






20th Nov
1940
XX
1031.1
81.42%
11.63%



6.95%







10th Oct
1941
XX
1031.2
65.39%
11.98%
4.99%
4.99%

5.66%
2.00%
4.99%





30th Jan
1942
XX
1029.1

12.02%
68.11%

4.01%
1.84%
2.00%
12.02%





30th May
1942
XX
1028.4
46.32%
12.63%
16.84%

5.61%
1.75%
2.11%
8.42%
1.05%
5.26%



5th Apr
1943
XX
1027.8
9.28%
10.31%
55.67%

5.50%
1.72%




17.53%


22nd Feb
1944
XX
1028.5

10.45%
71.08%

4.18%
1.74%

12.54%





4th Apr
1945
XX
1028.2

7.38%
62.21%

9.84%
3.70%

16.87%





12th Sep
1946
XX
1027.3

7.85%
75.14%

10.47%
2.06%

4.49%





3rd Jan
1947
XX
1027.5

7.79%
81.26%

8.91%
2.04%







Sources:


Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document numbers LMA/4453/D/01/105, LMA/4453/D/01/107, LMA/4453/D/01/108, LMA/4453/D/01/109, LMA/4453/D/01/110, LMA/4453/D/01/111, LMA/4453/D/01/112, LMA/4453/D/01/114.




http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-o2HeO-jiWEU/VD-B5XjLFaI/AAAAAAAAVfE/tUEDtLUobqA/s1600/Whitbread_Mild_Ale_grists_1938_1947.jpg (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-o2HeO-jiWEU/VD-B5XjLFaI/AAAAAAAAVfE/tUEDtLUobqA/s1600/Whitbread_Mild_Ale_grists_1938_1947.jpg)

There's only one constant in the grist: crystal malt. Not evem mild malt and No. 3 invert sugar, staples of Dark Mild brewing, appear in every beer. When things were starting to get back to normal in 1947, Whitbread reverted to a grist of base malt, crystal malt and sugar.

Next time the excitement begins. We'll be looking at hops.







* Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/108.
** Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/109.
*** Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/110.
**** Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/01/111.

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