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20-11-2012, 08:19
Visit the Shut up about Barclay Perkins site (http://barclayperkins.blogspot.com/2012/11/x-ales-in-1860s.html)


http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gOze0WwUdZU/UKZnz3cgdnI/AAAAAAAAMrI/7sHwjRwS2qM/s320/Tetley_Family_Ale.jpg (http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gOze0WwUdZU/UKZnz3cgdnI/AAAAAAAAMrI/7sHwjRwS2qM/s1600/Tetley_Family_Ale.jpg)
Looking at X Ales from the 1830's was so much fun, I've decided to revisit the topic. Except this time I'm also including provincial X Ales. I would have done the same for the 1830's except I have bugger all records from outside London for that period. That's OK. I'm making up for it now.

If you can remember as far back as the 1830's, you'll see that the gravities had fallen in the intervening 30 years. That's no surprise. The 1830's were the high point. It's been all downhill for Mild gravities ever since.

What should be immediately apparent is the disappearance of some of the high-gravity X Ales. The XXX Ales have all disappeared and some of the XXX Ales. On the other hand, both Whitbread and Truman had introduced an intermediate beer between X Ale and XX Ale. XL in the case of Whitbread, 40/- Ale in the case of Truman. I assume that the L in XL stands for London. That's usually what it meant. 40/- Ale's name is pretty easy to explain: it's the price per barrel. (Those who think the shilling system of designation was purely Scottish, please take note.)

Surprisingly, the hopping rates had increased averaging around 10 pounds per quarter compared to about 8 in the 1830's. I've absolutely no idea how to explain this. It could be connected with a change in the source of hops. There had been a revolution in hop supplies in the intervening decades. with foreign hops, especially American ones, becoming very common. In the 1830's the hops had been all English. The increased hopping rate could reflect these imported hops being of lower quality.

Attenuation had edged up a tad, and averaged closer to 70% than the former 65%. Though I'm not sure that the change is big enough to be really significant.




London X Ales in the 1860's


Date
Year
Brewer
Beer
OG
FG
ABV
App. Attenuation
lbs hops/ qtr
hops lb/brl
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
Pitch temp
max. fermentation temp
length of fermentation (days)


14th May
1867
Barclay Perkins
X
1061.2
1018.6
5.64
69.68%
9.85
2.77
1.25
1.5
2.5
65º
º



2nd Oct
1868
Barclay Perkins
XX
1078.9
1024.7
7.18
68.77%
12.89
4.47
1.5
1.75
3
61º
77º
3 + 4


2nd Oct
1868
Barclay Perkins
XXX
1092.8
1030.2
8.28
67.46%
14.21
5.90
1.5
1.75
3
58º
77º
3 + 4


8th Jul
1867
Whitbread
X
1061.2
1020.2
5.42
66.97%
10.12
2.95



64º
º
5


16th May
1867
Whitbread
XL
1071.2
1026.0
5.97
63.42%
9.01
3.05



60º
74º
3 + 3


3rd Jun
1867
Whitbread
XX
1082.3
1031.3
6.74
61.95%
9.09
3.21



60º
74º
3 + 1


3rd Jul
1865
Truman
X Ale
1067.3
1013.9
7.07
79.42%
9
2.78



59º
º



4th Jul
1865
Truman
40/- Ale
1072.6
1020.8
6.85
71.37%
9
3.00



59º
º



22nd Aug
1865
Truman
XX Ale
1081.2
1020.5
8.03
74.74%
11.0
7.17



58º
º



22nd Aug
1865
Truman
XXX Ale
1088.9
1022.7
8.76
74.45%
11.0
10.15



58º
º



23rd July
1867
Courage
Ale X
1065.9



10.00
3.10



º




30th July
1867
Courage
Ale XX
1078.9



10.00
3.71



º




Sources:


Whitbread brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives document numbers LMA/4453/D/01/032 and LMA/4453/D/01/033.


Barclay Perkins brewing records held at the London Metropolitan Archives document numbers ACC/2305/1/572 and ACC/2305/08/275.


Truman brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number B/THB/C/147.


Courage brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number ACC/2305/08/275.



http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-UW2LV61S-aE/UKZmjiX0s-I/AAAAAAAAMq4/8XfDFtS-Qqs/s320/London_X_Ales_1860s.jpg (http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-UW2LV61S-aE/UKZmjiX0s-I/AAAAAAAAMq4/8XfDFtS-Qqs/s1600/London_X_Ales_1860s.jpg)

Let's move on to the provincial X Ales. They cover a fairly good part of the country, being from Scotland, Yorkshire and Kent. I realise now that Lovibond, as a London brewer, should have been in the first table. Though in terms of the profile of their beers, they fit in better here. Presumably because they were considerably smaller than the likes or Truman, Whitbread, Courage and Barclay Perkins.




Provincial X Ales in the 1860's


Date
Year
Brewer
Beer
OG
FG
ABV
App. Attenuation
lbs hops/ qtr
hops lb/brl
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
boil time (hours)
Pitch temp
max. fermentation temp
length of fermentation (days)


1st Oct
1868
Tetley
X
1047.4
1020.8
3.52
56.14%
6.00
1.11
1.5
2

66º
66º
4


2nd Oct
1868
Tetley
X1
1055.4
1019.4
4.76
65.00%
6.00
1.30
1.5
2

59º
63º
6


5th Oct
1868
Tetley
X2
1062.0
1017.7
5.86
71.43%
8.00
2.00
1.5
2

62º
65º
9


19th Oct
1868
Tetley
X3
1066.5
1022.2
5.86
66.67%
9.96
3.93
1.5
2

61º
65º
8


17th Oct
1868
William Younger
X
1053
1023
3.97
56.60%
6.30
1.36
2.5


59º
66º
3 + 3


24th Aug
1868
William Younger
XX
1057
1024
4.37
57.89%
9.58
2.25
2
2.25

58º
69º
4 + 2


26th Aug
1868
William Younger
XXX
1068
1028
5.29
58.82%
8.00
2.55
2
2.5

60º
69º
4 + 2


18th Jun
1869
Medway
X
1051.5



8.00
1.75
1.5
1.5

60º




2nd Jun
1869
Medway
XX
1066.8



9.00
2.63
1.5
1.5

60º





1864
Lovibond
X Ale
1050.4
1015.5
4.62
69.23%
10.50
3.15









1864
Lovibond
XX Ale
1065.6
1015.0
6.70
77.20%
2.73
0.81









1864
Lovibond
XXX Ale
1074.2
1016.6
7.62
77.61%
6.50
1.04









1864
Lovibond
XXXX Ale
1085.3
1019.9
8.65
76.62%
10.50
2.01








Sources:


Tetley brewing record held at the West Yorkshire Archive Service, Leeds document number WYL756/16/ACC1903


William Younger brewing record held at the Scottish Brewing Archive document number WY/6/1/2/21


Medway brewing record owned by me


Lovibond brewing record owned by me



http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-lVLF9vFCdZI/UKZmkZMvI0I/AAAAAAAAMq8/G8G7qDf7xtM/s320/Provincial_X_Ales_1860s.jpg (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-lVLF9vFCdZI/UKZmkZMvI0I/AAAAAAAAMq8/G8G7qDf7xtM/s1600/Provincial_X_Ales_1860s.jpg)


The table confirms what I told you before: that the beer from the large London brewers was in general stronger than from their smaller or provincial competitors. The X Ales of the big boys all had gravities over 1060º, while those of the provincial brewers were only around 1050º. The same pattern continued as you went up the strength scale, with Tetley's strongest Mild, X3, only being about the same strength as a London X Ale.

The hopping rates of the provincial beers were also lower, averaging a little under 8 lbs per quarter, while the London beers averaged almost 10.5 lbs per quarter.

It's a shame that I don't have more complete figures for fermentation temperatures. It looks as if, although the pitching temperatures were all around 60º F, that the maximum temperature was considerably lower outside London. A difference in the order of 10º F. This had to be deliberate as London brewers had total control of their fermentation temperatures. I assume the other brewers did, too, as by this time attemperators were standard pieces of kit. https://blogger.googleusercontent.com/tracker/5445569787371915337-2905906745456889112?l=barclayperkins.blogspot.com


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